Full Title:Analytical Science
Module Code:INST S7Z02
Credits: 7.5
Valid From:Semester 1 - 2015/16 ( September 2015 )
Module Delivered in 6 programme(s)
Module Description:The aims of this module are to • introduce students to selected aspects of modern chemical and biochemical analytical instrumentation and techniques. • increase student’s confidence in undertaking analysis (independently and in a research team) and in designing and executing experiments. • encourage students to take careful measurements and to assess the validity of their results.
Learning Outcomes:
On successful completion of this module the learner should be able to
  1. Describe the fundamental theoretical basis of the function of some chromatographic, spectroscopic and immobilised reaction systems including the applications and limitations of selected techniques.
  2. Compare and contrast common analytical techniques in separation science (GC and HPLC), spectroscopy (Atomic and Molecular) and immobilised reaction systems (microarrays and Biosensors).
  3. Demonstrate proficiency in using a range of analytical instrumentation and techniques by following standard operating procedures.
  4. Combine technical skills and theoretical knowledge to define a problem in analytical science and select the most suitable technique to solve the problem.
  5. Assess the validity of analytical procedures and assays with reference to the ICH Harmonised Tripartite Guidelines on assay validation.

Module Content & Assessment

Indicative Content
Introduction and general principles of chromatography, modes including Adsorption, Partition, Ion Exchange and Size Exclusion. Focus on Gas liquid chromatography, including instrumentation, mobile/stationary phase selection, packed/capillary columns, detectors (FID, MS), hyphenated techniques, applications and associated problems. Focus on HPLC; overview of HPLC, normal/reverse phase, column/mobile phase selection, diode-array detection, hyphenated techniques (HPLC- MS), and applications. Comparison of GC and HPLC. Chromatographic Parameters; Retention factor, Selectivity and Efficiency defined mathematically, Resolution defined and its dependence on chromatographic parameters will be illustrated for optimisation of resolution.
Molecular Spectroscopy
The electromagnetic spectrum, absorption of UV/visible radiation, excitation of electrons, relationship of structure to absorption, Beer/Lambert Law. The range of colorimeters and spectrophotometers and a survey of the main components parts. Applications of UV and visible spectroscopy and quantitative calculations. Brief survey of fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy, turbidimetry, nephelometry and luminescence; physical processes, applications to include microbiological analysis/detection.
Atomic Spectroscopy
Principle of absorption of energy by ground state atoms in gaseous state, electronic transitions, absorption/emission. Flame-based analytical systems; instrumentation, processes involved and examples of applications. Plasma-based techniques (ICP); comparison with flame-based techniques. Spectral, molecular, ionization and physical interferences. Quantitative techniques (including standard addition, internal standard). Application of atomic spectroscopy for sustainable environmental monitoring of trace metals and pollutants in water, soils and sludges (alignment with strategic theme of Sustainability).
Immobilised Reaction Systems
Introduction to immobilised systems, applications, methods of immobilisation including adsorption, covalent attachment, entrapment and encapsulation, comparison of strategies. Focus on biosensors, biomedical applications, ideal characteristics, transducers, immunosensors. Overview of microarray technology, virtual DNA microarray experiment. Examples of laboratory and industrial applications of immobilised systems. Development of new ideas for the use of immobilised reaction systems (alignment with strategic theme of Entrepreneurship).
Validation of Analytical Procedures/Assays
Focus on ICH (International Conference on Harmonisation) Harmonised Tripartite Guidelines on assay validation, validation characteristics; accuracy, precision, specificity, detection limit, quantitation limit, linearity, range will be defined and equations will be used in practice to validate data obtained by students during laboratory practicals and (where available) from international case studies (alignment with strategic theme of Internationalisation).
Learning and Teaching Methods
Teaching methods will comprise delivery of lectures and practical sessions with an emphasis on deep learning in a student-centred learning approach. A variety of blended and eLearning techniques will be deployed including in-class demonstrations, problem-based learning, peer assisted learning, self assessment and use of multi-media (animations, videos, podcasts, eAssessments, virtual eLabs).
Virtual Learning Environment
The DkIT Virtual Learning Environment (Moodle) page for Analytical Instrumentation and Techniques 1 will be used extensively as a repository for lecture material, past exam papers, video links, online resource links, online quizzes, feedback, peer-reviewed articles as well as documents pertaining to practical lab sessions (Material Safety Data Sheets).
Virtual Laboratory Experiments
The use of virtual laboratory experiments in chromatography, spectroscopy and immobilisation reaction systems will complement laboratory practical sessions and reinforce fundamental theoretical concepts (for example; students will gain access to a CHROMacademy account managed by lecturer for full access to chromatography database, including HPLC, GC and hyphenated techniques, eLabs, assessments, webcasts, tutorials, lab simulations/ tools, peer-reviewed technical articles and application notes. Certification by CHROMacademy is also available to students upon completion of assessments).
Laboratory Practical Sessions
The following list is designed to serve as an illustration of possible practical exercises which would illustrate key concepts and techniques: • Separation of pigments by thin layer chromatography, • Use of gas liquid chromatography to identify and quantify components in a mixture, • Use of internal and external standards in gas liquid chromatography for quantification, • Use of high performance liquid chromatography to detect and quantify selected analytes, • To assess column quality in HPLC separations, • To verify Beer-Lambert Law in UV-Vis spectroscopy, • To study absorption of visible light by compounds and their absorption spectra, • To study practical aspects of spectroscopy including accuracy, precision, sources of error and procedure validation, • To determine metal content by atomic absorption spectrophotometry using the standard addition method, • To determine metal content by flame photometry using an internal standard.
Assessment Breakdown%
Course Work20.00%
End of Module Formal Examination50.00%

Full Time

Course Work
Assessment Type Assessment Description Outcome addressed % of total Marks Out Of Pass Marks Assessment Date Duration
Group Project Using the problem-based learning technique, students (small group work) will be given a problem to solve in forensic/pharmaceutical/environmental science for which they should combine technical skills (developed in practical sessions) and theoretical knowledge (developed through classroom and self-directed learning) to define the problem and select and apply the most suitable technique to solve the problem and produce a written report. 4 10.00 0 0 Week 11 0
Continuous Assessment In class written evaluation of data from International case studies. 5 10.00 0 0 Week 12 0
No Project
Assessment Type Assessment Description Outcome addressed % of total Marks Out Of Pass Marks Assessment Date Duration
Practical/Skills Evaluation A programme of weekly 3-hour laboratory practical sessions will run concurrently with lectures to reinforce fundamental theoretical concepts. Students will perform common analytical techniques using a suite of analytical instrumentation by following basic operating procedures, thereby gaining hands-on experience. Each student will be required to write a formal laboratory report for each experiment. 1,2,3,4,5 30.00 0 0 n/a 0
End of Module Formal Examination
Assessment Type Assessment Description Outcome addressed % of total Marks Out Of Pass Marks Assessment Date Duration
Formal Exam End-of-Semester Final Examination 1,2 50.00 0 0 End-of-Semester 0
Reassessment Requirement
A repeat examination
Reassessment of this module will consist of a repeat examination. It is possible that there will also be a requirement to be reassessed in a coursework element.

DKIT reserves the right to alter the nature and timings of assessment


Module Workload & Resources

Workload: Full Time
Workload Type Workload Description Hours Frequency Average Weekly Learner Workload
Lecture Learning and Teaching Methods described in Module Content 3.00 Every Week 3.00
Practical A programme of weekly 3-hour laboratory practical sessions will run concurrently with lectures to reinforce fundamental theoretical concepts in separation science, spectroscopy and immobilised reaction systems. 3.00 Every Week 3.00
Directed Reading Lecture notes, Peer-reviewed papers, Textbooks, e-Resources 3.00 Every Week 3.00
Independent Study Independent/Group study 4.00 Every Week 4.00
Tutorial Problem solving, recap and revision tutorial. 1.00 Every Week 1.00
Total Weekly Learner Workload 14.00
Total Weekly Contact Hours 7.00
This course has no Part Time workload.
Recommended Book Resources
  • Harris D C 2009, Exploring chemical analysis, 4th Ed., WH Freeman
  • Skoog D. A., Holler F. J., and Crouch S.R. 2007, Principles of instrumental analysis, 6th Ed., Thomson Publ,
  • Wilson K. and Walker J. 2005, Principles and techniques of biochemistry and molecular biology, 6th Ed., Cambridge Univ. Press
  • Harris, D.C. 2007, Quantitative chemical analysis, 7th Ed., WH Freeman
  • Kealey D and Haines P J 2002, Instant notes in chemical analysis, Garland Science,
  • Watson D. G. 2005, Pharmaceutical analysis, 2nd Ed., Elsevier
  • Skoog D. A., West D. M., Holler F. J. 1997, Fundamentals in analytical chemistry, 7th Ed., Harcourt College Publ
Supplementary Book Resources
  • Gurdeep R. Chatwal ; edited by Madhu Arora 2008, Analytical Chemistry [electronic resource], Global Media DkIT Ebrary Collection
  • Sinead T. Loughran, Dermot Walls 2011, Protein Chromatography - Methods and Protocols; Methods in Molecular Biology, Humana Press Copies available from Sinead Loughran
  • Gurdeep R. Chatwal ; edited by Madhu Arora. 2006, Analytical chromatography [electronic resource], Himalaya Pub. House DkIT Ebrary Collection
  • Ian A. Fowlis. 1995, Gas chromatography : analytical chemistry by open learning, 2nd Ed., Wiley
  • Joel K. Swadesh. 2001, HPLC : practical and industrial applications, 2nd Ed., CRC Press
  • Wellings, Donald A 2006, Practical Handbook of Preparative HPLC [electronic resource], Elsevier Science & Technology DkIT Ebrary Collection
  • Chatwal, Gurdeep R. Anand, Sham K. 2009, Spectroscopy : Atomic and Molecular [electronic resource], Global Media DkIT Ebrary Collection
  • F.W. Fifield and P.J. Haines. 1995, Environmental analytical chemistry, Blackie Academic & Professional
  • Zhang, Xueji Ju, Huangxian Wang, Joseph 2007, Electrochemical Sensors, Biosensors and Their Biomedical Applications [electronic resource], Academic Press DkIT Ebrary Collection
  • Michael Thompson, Philip J. Lowthian. 2011, Notes on statistics and data quality for analytical chemists [electronic resource], Imperial College Press DkIT Ebrary Collection
  • De Levie, Robert 2001, How to Use Excel in Analytical Chemistry : And in General Scientific Data Analysis [electronic resource], Cambridge University Press DkIT Ebrary Collection
This module does not have any article/paper resources
Other Resources

Module Delivered in

Programme Code Programme Semester Delivery
DK_SENVI_8 Bachelor of Science (Honours) in Environmental Bioscience 3 Mandatory
DK_SAPBI_7 Bachelor of Science in Applied Bioscience 3 Mandatory
659 Bachelor of Science in Environmental Bioscience 3 Mandatory
DK_SPHAR_7 Bachelor of Science in Pharmaceutical Science 3 Mandatory
Dk_SPHAR_6 Higher Certificate in Science 3 Mandatory
Dk_SAPBI_6 Higher Certificate in Science 3 Mandatory